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Friday, November 23, 2007

RUNYANKORE

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Runyankore-Rukiga

Muri iyi nyandiko, Runyankore-Rukiga, byanditswe mw'ijambo rimwe ritandukanijwe n'akarongo. Icyabiteye ni ukubera ko uru rurimi ari ururimi rumwe koko! Kano karongo hamwe n'amagambo abiri Runyankore na Rukiga birerekana na none ko n'ubwo ari ururimi rumwe, rutavugwa n'abantu bamwe. Mbese ni kimwe n'izindi ndimi nk'icyongereza, cyivugwa n'Abongereza, Abanyamerika, abantu bo muri Australia n'Afrika yo Hepfo. Abo bose bavuga ururimi rumwe, ariko iyo batangiye kuvuga umuntu amenya icyo cyongereza bavuga aho gituruka. N'igifaransa ni kimwe, Abafaransa bavuga igifaransa, Abakanada bavuga igifaransa, Ababiligi bavuga igifaransa; nabo rero iyo bavuze umuntu aherako amenya aho baturuka. Nta mpamvu rero yo kuvuga ko bavuga indimi zitandukanye kandi iyo baganira bumvikana neza, ntihagire ukenera umusemuzi. Abanyankore rero n'Abakiga iyo bavuga nabo barumvikana neza n'ubwo umwe amenya ko uwo bavugana ari umukiga cyangwa umunyankore. Mbese ni kimwe n'ikinyarwanda n'ikirundi. Dukurikije amategeko y'isesengurandimi, ikinyarwanda n'ikirundi ntabwo ari indimi ebyiri zitandukanye, ahubwo ni ururimi rumwe, rufite amazina abiri kubera ko abaruvuga badatuye hamwe. Urunyankore n'urukiga nabyo ni cyo kimwe, kubera ko bamwe batuye ukwabo abandi bakaba batuye ukwabo, ariko ubundi barumvikana neza usibye utuntu duke duke nk'uko amagambo avugwa, ateye cyangwa icyo asobanura. Hano rero turerekana ko uru rurimi rusangiye n'ikinyarwanda ibintu byinshi. Icyambere kubera ko izi ndimi zitwegereye, icya kabiri kubera ko ziri mu muryango umwe witwa uw'Abantu.

Isano ry'umwihariko

Runyankore-rukiga rufite isano ry'umwihariko ku kinyarwanda kurusha izindi ndimi za kure. Zombi ziba mu "kazu" k'umuryango witwa Indimi-bantu zo mu biyaga bigari.
Ikindi ni uko uru rurimi rwegeranye cyane n'uruganda, urutoro n'urusoga. Ikiranga izi ndimi cyane cyane ni uko inyajwi ibanziriza indanganteko ihinduka o iyo mu zindi ndimi ari u , ubundi ikaba e iyo mu zindi ari i.
Ingero:
Ikinyarwanda Runyankore-rukiga
umunyu omonyo
ukwezi okwezi
urubingo orubingo
imiyonga emiyonga
icyara ekyara
igitabo ekitabo

Muri izi ndimi zose inka bayita ente. N'ihene, muri izi ndimi yitwa imbuzi. Ariko iri jambo ryo ryerekeye ihene riboneka no mu zindi ndimi za kure.

Imbanziriza-jambo rigira inyuguti ibanziriza igicumbi:

Ingero:

omu nju>mu nzu
omu kibuga>mu kibuga
aha meeza>ku meza
aha munwa> ku munwa

Ntera nyereka

Mu zindi ndimi z'uyu muryango, inyinshi usanga ntera nyereka ibanziriza izina iherekeje. Muri izi ndimi zo muri Uganda yo hepfo usanga ho zikurikira.

ni-n-tuura omu nju omu> ntura muri iyi nzu
ekitabo iki>iki gitabo
aha kitabo iki> kuri iki gitabo

Mu kinyarwanda, rimwe na rimwe hari ubwo, ntera iza nyuma y'izina cyane cyane mu bisigo: Urugero: mu Rwanda umu

Inzagihe

Akabango karanga inzagihe mu kinyarwanda ni -za-. Muri izi ndimi ni -rya-.

n-dya-geenda>n-za-genda
bi-rya-gwa>bi-za-gwa
tu-rya-biika>tu-za-bika
o-rya-ha>u-za-ha
tu-rya-kora>tu-za-kora
ba-rya-shutama>ba-za-sutama

Itegeko rya Dahl

Itegeko rya Dahl ntiriboneka muri izi ndimi. Riboneka gusa mu kinyarwanda/kirundi, mu gisukuma n'igikuyu. Iyo mu kinyarwanda, akabango kabanziriza igicumbi cy'ijambo gafite ingomba-jwi y'indagi n'igicumbi nacyo kibanzirizwa n'indagi, iyo ngombajwi y'akabango kabanziriza igicumbi ihinduka indangurure.

gukora/kukora
gusoma/kushoma
ugutwi/okutu
guhemuka/kuhemuka
agahera/akahera
igitabo/ekitabo

Amagambo ikinyarwanda n'urunyankore-rukiga bisangiye

Amagambo yerekeye umubiri

okwahwa>ukwaha
omugongo>umugongo
oruhago>uruhago
eigufa>igufa
ubwonko>obwonko
eibere>ibere
omushaya>umusaya
okutu>ugutwi
enkokora>inkokora
eriisho>ijisho
orugohe>urugohe
omukono>umukono
endurwe>indurwe
oruju>uruvi
omutwe>umutwe
omutima>umutima
ekitsintsiino>agatsinsino
enyugunyu>akayunguyungu
amara>amara
orugingo>urugingo
entsigo>impyiko
okuju>ivi
okuguru>ukuguru
ekihaha>igihaha
akanwa>akanwa
enkundi>umukondo
ekiganja>ikiganza
emboro>imboro
amacantwe>amacandwe
oruhu>uruhu
eriino>iryinyo
enda>inda
ekibero>ikibero
ekigigo>ikijigo
muziiki>muzitsa
enkari>inkari
amarira>amarira
eizina>izina
mpora>buhoro (nimugyende mpora)
ekibuga>ikibuga
obusha>ubusa
orurimi>ururimi
omunywani>umunywanyi
oburo>uburo
enyamaishwa
ebirere>ibirere
enanga>inanga
obwengye>ubwenge
eizina>izina
encwera>inshira
embeba>imbeba
oruhindura>uruhindura
enyindo>izuru
ekitigu>umwijima
eibega>urutugu
ni buhoro>ni amahoro
eitumba>itumba
ninga>cyangwa/nangwa
mpora>buhoro Urugero: nimugyende mpora>nimugende buhoro
kworeka>kwereka
ekishushani>igishushanyo
hanu>hano
kureka>cyeretse
emboga>imboga
oburo>uburo

Isano

maawe/nyoko/nyina
mukaiba>mukeba
omuramukazi>muramukazi
omuramu>muramu
mukuru
murumuna
mukwe>umukwe
omwihwa>umwishywa
omushanzire>umusanzire
nyinasenge (Kiga)ishenkazi>nyirasenge
nyinarumi>nyirarume
ishe>ise
mukaishe>mukase
omugyenzi>umugenzi
omunywani>umunywanyi

Inshinga

kuhemuka>guhemuka
kugaruka>kugaruka
kutongana
kurwana
kumoka>kumoka
kuruma>kuruma
kuhuuha>guhuha
kwaka>kwaka
kwotsya>kwotsa
kwitsya>kwitsa
kubara>kubara
kufa>gupfa
kunywa>kunywa
kwoma>kwuma
kurya>kurya
kugwa>kugwa
kurwana>kurwana
kuguruka>kuguruka
kuha>guha
kuremeera>kuremera
kuteera>gutera
kukwata>gukwata
kuhiiga>guhiga
kumanya>kumenya
kusheka>guseka
kugarama>kugarama
kutuuta>gutura
kukurura>gukurura
kukuuba>gukuba
kureeba>kureba
kunuuka>kunuka
kwata>kwata
kugororoka>kugororoka
kwonka>kwonka
kuteekateeka>guteekereza
kuhinduka>guhinduka
kugyenda>kugenda
kwozya>kwoza
kukomba>gukomba
kusinda>gusinda
kuyoora>kuyora
kubaasa>kubasha
kushoma>gusoma
kwingana>kungana
kukunda>gukunda
kukora>gukora
kwija>kuza
kuruha>kuruha
kusinda>gusinda
kucunda>gucunda
kuguma>kuguma
kutiina>gutinya
kwingana>kungana
kunyaga>kunyaga
kutabaara>gutabara
kumanya>kumenya
kubuuza>kubaza
amajuta>amavuta

Amagambo asa ariko atavuga bimwe

Mu cyongereza amagambo asa ariko atavuga ibintu bimwe bayita amasano atari yo 'false cognates', mu gifaransa bayita inshuti zitari zo 'faux amis kubera ko n'ubwo atavuga kimwe, aba afite isano (icyo ahuriyeho).

Ikinyarwanda>Runyankore-rukiga

ikirenge>ekigyere (umugeri)
urutoki>rukumu (igikumwe)
igi>eihuri (ihuri)
kuririmba>kweshongora (kwishongora)
kwicara>kushutama (gusutama)
kwenda>gushaka
umutware>omwami (umwami). Mu runyakore-rukiga umwami ni umukama cyangwa umugabe
umuganga>omufumu (umupfumu)
igihugu>ensi (isi)> ex. abantu abu tutwiire omu nsi yabo>abantu duturiye mu gihugu cyabo.
igihugu>eihanga (amahanga)
kuganira>kuhanuura (guhanura)
rugongo>omusino (umushino)
ikibuno>enio (innyo)
umurwa>orurembo(ururembo)
icyumba>ekishenge (igisenge)
urugo>ekikaari (igikari)
ijeri> ekijunjuure (ikivumvuri)
guhamagara>kweta (kwita)
kurongora>kushwera (guswera)
kwinjira>kutaaha (gutaha)
ibihara>omuze (umuze)

Amagambo ashaje

Urunyankore-rukiga, rukoresha amagambo aboneka mu kinyarwanda, ariko akaba atagikoreshwa.

kugamba>kuvuga
omwambari (umwambari)>umugaragu
omworo (umworo)>umukene
emanzi(imanzi)>intwari
ihangwe (ihangu)>amanywa
eibega (ibega)>urutugu

Ihinduka ry'amajwi

Akenshi igitandukanya indimi ziva inda imwe ni ihinduka ry'amajwi. Iyo iryo jwi rihindutse ijambo ryose ribonetsemo ugasanga ari ko rimeze, mu ndimi z'i Bulayi babyita "sound correspondance". Hano rero naho usanga s yarabaye sh, v na z byarabaye j, f yarabye pf.

sh

kushusha>gusa
kushoma>gusoma
kushutama>gusutama
kushara>gusara
kusheka>guseka
ensha>nsa
kushanga>gusanga
omwisherukare>umusirikare

j

enjubu>imvubu
enjura>imvura
orubaju>urubavu
akaju>akazu
kwija>kuza
kwijura>kuzura

h>shy

kuhika>gushyika
ekihimbo>inshyimbo
oruhi>urushyi

pf

kufumura>gupfumura
kufundikira>gupfundikira
eifo>epfo

t>c

kwita>kwica
ewaitu>iwacu

Aya magambo akurikira, nayo usanga adahuje amajwi amwe n'ikinyarwanda. Ayahindutse nayo akurikira amategeko asanzwe aboneka mu zindi ndimi agenda imihindukire y'amawji nyine.

kukwata>gufata
kaingi>kenshi
kwibuka>kwiijuka
omugoye>umugozi
umugyera>umugezi
kwingana>kungana
empitsi>impyisi
enyonyoozi>inyenyeri
kwiragura>kwirabura
iguru>hejuru
kutiina>gutinya
kucwera>gucira
ekimira>ikimyira
kuzimba>kubyimba
omunyontori>umushyondori
ekibunu>ikibuno
enyonyi>inyoni
ekiniga>ikiniga
obusyo>ubushyo
enyondo>inyundo
enjangu>injangwe

kaandi>kandi
maawe>mawe
bambe>bambe
buhooro>amahoro
orureere>ikirere
amate>amata
enaanga>inanga
enyamaishwa
buri>buri
-zima
-ingi
-to
-sya
-bisi
-sha>-sa
-kuru>kuru
-gufu>-gufu
-kye>cye
-bi>bi

Ibango ryomekwa ku nshinga ryerekana ko igikorwa kimaze gukorwa

Inshinga zitondaguye, mu ndimi z'Abantu, ziherwa n'inyajwi -a cyangwa -e. Iyi nyajwi iyo iturutse mu buryo bw'inziganyo (subjunctive mood/mode subjonctif) ntabwo ihindura ingombajwi ihera igicumbi ariko iyo yerekana igikorwa kirangiye akenshi, ingombajwi ihera irahinduka.

ba-ra-dod-a>ba-ra-doz-e
ba-ra-sek-a>ba-ra-sets-e
ba-ra-ken-a>ba-ra-kenny-e
ba-ra-vug-a>ba-ra-vuz-e

Mu nyandiko zanjye n'iz'abandi banditse ku kinyarwanda, kandi kabango twavuze ko kagomba kuba ari -ye.

asinda>asinzire>yasinze
afa>afiire>yapfuye
baamanya>bamanyire>bamenye
baboha>babohire>baboshye
babiba>babibire>babibye
babyama>babyamire>baryamye
babiika>babiikire>babitse
ndareeba> ndarebire>ndarebye
mazire>maze
waayangire>wanze
ngumire>ngumye
tinguzire>singuze
tinkozire>sinkoze
naakikozire>nagikoze
tutwire>dutuye
waagizire oti>wagize uti
yazigarwire>yazigaruye
byijwire>byuzuye
waanyweire>wanyoye
nkikunzire>nagikunze
o-ra-rwaire>wararwaye
o-raire o-ta?>waraye ute?
entaama yaangye ebuzire>intama yanjye yabuze
ita>itsire>ishe(ica)

uyu>ogu; gu (s), gu (0), gwo (emphatic)
aya>aga aga mata/kuganywa>kuyanywa ga (s), ga (o), go (emphatic)
9: ei (s), gi (o), yo (emphatic)
omutwe gw'embwa>umutwe w'imbwa
ashutami omu maisho g'eiheme>yicaye imbere y'ihema
amagufa aganaga obuseeri bw'amahega>amagufa yayanaze hejuru y'amashyiga

Itegeko ry'uruganda

Itegeko ry'uruganda, rihindura ingombajwi iri hagati y'inyazuru, nayo inyazuru. Iri zina ryahawe iri tegeko kubera ko mu rugande, iri tegeko ari ho riboneka cyane kurusha izindi ndimi rirukikihe.

orubanja>urubanza; emanja (en-banja)>imanza (in-banza)
orubango>urubango; embango (en-bango)>imango (in-bango)
orubingo>urubingo; emingo (en-bingo)>imbingo
orubambo>urubambo; emambo (en-bambo)>imambo (in-bambo)

Nk'uko izi ngero zibyerekana, iyi ngombajwi muri izi ndimi zombi akenshi ni b.

kubandwa>imandwa (in-bandwa)

Mu rugande, d na g nazo zihinduka inyazuru.

Guhindura umwanya (metathesis)

kuheza>kuhereza>*kuhezera
gusokoza>gusokoreza>*gusokozera
kubaza>kubariza>*kubazira
kubuguza>kubuguriza>*kubuguzira

Ikoreshwa ry'inyajwi ibanziriza indanga-nteko

Izindi ndimi nk'ikinyarwanda zirayikoresha. Ariko hari henshi idakoreshwa bitewe n'umwanya ijambo rifite mu nteruro. Mu kinyarwanda usibye iyo rikurikiye ntera cyangwa imbanziriza-zina, rikoreshwa henshi.
Tinareeba muntu>sindeba umuntu (sinabonye umuntu )

Ingiro ntega (Passive)

Nta mbanziriza-zina ikoreshwa imbere y'izina nyagukora

Omukazi akaitwa omwibi>Umugore yishwe n'umwibyi
Omushaija akaitwa omuze>Umugabo yishwe n'ubuhara (umuze)

Gusesengura iri bango ni ikintu cyaruhije abazobereye mw'iyiga ndimi. Kwomeka iri bango ku nshinga bituma hari ibintu byinshi bihinduka ku gicumbi, cyane cyane kw'igombajwi ihera icyo gicumbi. Umugabo witwa Bastin w'umubirigi yabyise imbrication. Ikibazo rero gikomeye ni ukumenya uko ako kabango gasa , uko gateye n'ukuntu komekwa kw'ishinga. Kaba kwomekerwa kose hamwe, cyangwa, ibice byako byaba bigenda byomekwa kimwe ukwacyo, ukundi ukwacyo aho gishinzwe mu shinga. Mbese ako kabango kakabo ari ako bita suffix cyangwa circumfix. Muri uru rurimi biragaragara neza ko ari -ire ariko mu kinyarwanda, ntitwamenya neza niba ari -ire cyangwa -ye nk'uko abahanga benshi babitekereza.

Amazina

Amazina y'ikinyarwanda amwe ahuye neza n'aboneka muri uru rurimi nk'uko ingero zikurikira zibyerekana.

Mugisha>Mugisha
Rukara>Rukara
Kikundwa>Gikundwa

Ikinyarwanda gifite amazina menshi afite inkomoko muri uru rurimi. N'ubwo atari amazina yaho aturuka ku magambo yarwo ashaje cyangwa ku miterere y'amagambo yarwo.
Amagambo yo mu migani atangirwa n'indangazina wa- nko mu kinyarwanda

Waruhitsi>Warupfisi
Warugwe>Warugwe
Wakami>Bakame
Warubeba>Rubeba
Warucuncu>Ntare

Ruhanga>Imana
haifi>hafi
omunda ya> imbere mu
ari omunda y'ekiina>ari mu mwobo
ashutami aheeru y'eihema>yiicaye(asutamye) hanze y'ihema
ashutami omu maisho g'eihema>yicaye (asutamye) imbere (mu maso) y'ihema
enyoni neeguruka aha iguru y'ebicu>inyoni iraguruka hejuru y'ibicu
ashutami aha ntebe/rwigi>yicaye ku ntebe/ku rugi
ashutami ahansi y'orutindo>yicaye mu nsi y'urutindo
emotoka eri aha rubavu rw'enju>imodoka iri iruhande rw'inzu
tsiga omwanya ahagati y'obusyo n'obundi> siga umwanya hagati y'ubushyo n'ubundi
enyama yangye enjangu e-gi-riire
agira ngu kwokwo ni kwo>agira ngo koko ni byo.

Amazina y'amezi

Biruuru>Mutarama
Kaata>Gashyantare
Katumba>Werurwe
Nyaikoma>Mata
Kikuransi>Gicuransi
Kyabahezi>Kamena
Kahingo>Nyakanga
Nyakanga>Kanama
Nyairirwe>Nzeri
Kamena>Ukwakira
Kashwa (iswa)>Ugushyingo
Museeneene (isenene)>Ukuboza
Muzimbeezi

Ubundi uko amezi y'ikinyarwanda akurikirana

Mutarama (1), Gashyantare (2), Werurwe (3), Mata (4), Gicuransi (5), Kamena (6), Nyakanga (7), Kanama (8), Nzeri (9), Ukwakira (10), Ugushyingo (11), Ukuboza (12)

-i na -yi

kurima>umurimyi>omurimi
kwubaka> umwubatsi>omwembeki
kwivuga>umwivuzi>omwevugi
kwiba>umwibyi>omwibi
kurinda>umurinzi>umurinzi

Inyajwi ndende

umusaza (umusáaza)> umushaija
amazi(amáazi)>amaizi

eiziina
eihembe
haihi>hafi
embogo>imbogo
enkuba>inkuba
eihega>ishyiga
ebihimbo>inshyimbo
akanyaamunyu>akanyamanza

Amazina y'ibiti bivura

Mu kinyarwanda, ibiti bivura usanga akenshi amazina yabyo agira icyo ahuriyeho n'indwara, avuga ukuntu akiza izo ndwara cyangwa imitetere y'ibyo biti nyirizina. Uru rurimi narwo usanga rusangiye ibi n'ikinyarwanda nk'uko ingero zikurikira zibyerekana.

omwangangi>umwangange
mbabazi-zaa-ntaama>mbabazi-za-ntama
omubiriizi>umubirizi
ekicumucumu>igicumucumu
ekitobotobo>igitobotobo
akanyama-fundo>akanyamapfundo urunya-igana>urunyejana
omunkamba>umunkamba
ebihimbo by'abakaikuru>inshyimbo z'abakecuru
ekinyamahwa>ikinyamahwa
orwibamutima>urwibamutima
ekiitanjoka>ikicanzoka
akaitamandwa>akicamandwa
omushugi>umusugi
kashogi-shaija>gasogi-ngabo
ekishariita>igisharita
akarya-buzimba>akaryabubyimba
kyoya-kya-ntaama>cyoya-cya-ntama
ekizimyamuriro>ikizimyamuriro
omwetsamuzo>umwitsamuzo
akatsingabagore>agasigabagore
esheko y'ensi>iseko y'isi
ndimi-nyingi>ndimi-nyinshi
akaryabuzimba>akaryabubyimba omuryanyoni>umuryanyoni
nyakarimi-kamwe>nyakarimi-kamwe
enda-nsha>inda-nsa
akaranda-rugo>akarandarugo
ekyoga-nyanja>icyoganyanja
kanyaza-bashumba>kanyazabashumba
omukuza-nyana>umukuzanyana
rumara-magambo>rumaramagambo
omukwata-ngwe>umufatangwe
omukinga-ngabo>umukingangabo
enjoka-etaruma>inzok-itaruma
kagyenza-nda>kagenzanda
obucumita-mbogo>ubucumitambogo

Umwanzuro

Uru rurimi runyankore-rukiga rwegereye cyane ikinyarwanda. Iyo umuntu yitegereje neza cyakora asanga, ikinyarwanda cyaragiye gihindura ibintu byinshi, ari mu mvugo, mw'isobanuro ry'amagambo, n'imiterere y'amagambo hamwe n'interuro. Muri make ikinyarwanda gifite ibintu byinshi bishya, naho uru rurimi rundi ruracyafite ibiranga ururimi rwa kera, zombi zikomokaho.

Ibitabo byakoreshejwe

Kimenyi, Alexandre. 1989. Study in Kinyarwanda and Bantu Phonology. Edomonton, Alberta: Linguistic Research Inc.
Taylor, Charles. Nkore-Kiga. 1985. Beckenham, Kent, England: Croom Helm Ltd.

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