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Friday, November 23, 2007

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IKILUBA
Alexandre Kimenyi

Ikiluba ni ururimi rw'Abaluba. Abaluba batuye mu ntara ebyiri za Kongo ari zo KATANGA na KASAYI. Abaluga ni ubwoko bunini cyane muri Kongo nyine. Ubundi bwoko bunini ni Abakongo batuye mu bihugu bitatu ari byo Kongo Brazzaville, Kongo Kinshasa na Angola. Uru rurimi abanditsi bamwe barwita Iciluba, abandi Itshiluba abandi na none Ikiluba. Ni rumwe mu ndimi enye zikoreshwa mu nyandiko za Leta n'iz'amashuri. Izo zindi zemewe ni Igifaransa, Igiswahili n'Ilingala. Kuko ruri mu muryango w'indimi zitwa iz'Abantu rusangiye amagambo menshi n'Ikinyarwanda, imiterere y'amagambo n'interuro hamwe n'amategeko agenga uko ururimi ruvugwa. Rimwe na rimwe hari ubwo iyo miterere iba idahuje kubera ihinduka ry'indimi ariko ibyo ntibibe bitangaje kuko uko guhinduka gukurikiza amategeko abazobereye mu buhanga bwo gusesengura indimi baba bazi.

Amagambo y'indimi z'abantu afite imiterere imwe. Yose ari amazina cyangwa inshinga afite ibicumbi ari byo bice by'ijambo ibisobanuro bishingiyeho kandi utundi tubango akaba ari byo twomekwaho. Ku mazina utwo tubango twerekana inteko izina ririmo. Inyinshi muri izi ndimi zifite inteko 16. Hari afite inteko 21. Utubango twerekana izo nteko z'amazina twitwa indangazina nyine. Iimwe muri izi ndimi zifite n'inyajwi ibanziriza izo ndangazina. Ikinyarwanda, Uruganda, Ikixhosa ziri muri izo ndimi zifite iyo nyajwi. Inshinga usibye icyo gicumbi zifite utubango twinshi tumwe tukaba tubanziriza igicumbi, utundi tuzagikurikira. Utubango tubanza twerekana insimburazina ngenga, igihe igikorwa gikorerwa (indagihe, impitagihe, inzagihe) n'ukuntu gikorwa naho udukurikira ari two twitwa inshinga ngwiza tumwe muri two ni inshinga ngirira, inshinga ngirirwa, inshinga gikora, inshinga ngirura, inshinga ngirana, etc. Mu ndimi nyinshi utwo tubango natwo usanga dusa.

Amagambo Ikinyarwanda gisangiye n'izindi ndimi hafi ya zose ni akurikira:
_Amagambo yerekeye ikiremwamuntu: umuntu, umupfumu, umugeni, ikirema, umwari, umuganga
_Ibice by'umubiri: umutwe, ugutwi, ijisho, iryinyo, akanwa, ururimi, ukuboko, ukuguru, itama, umugongo, urwara, imboro, rugongo, itako, ivi, ibere
_Ibikoko: inyama(swa), ingurube, inkoko, imbwa, inkanga, inkware, inyoni, inzuki, imbogo, ingwe, inzovu, imvubu, ingona, inzoka, impyisi, impara, inkima, iswa
_Andi magambo areba ibiboneka kw'isi:
izuba, isi, ibuye, ijuru, ukwezi, umwaka, uruzi, amazi, urume, inyumba, uburiri, umuriro, umwotsi, ishyiga, inzira, igiti, umuzi, ubuki, imboga, inzara, inyota, imvura, induru, icumu, ingabo, ingoma, inyundo, isoni. _Inshinga: kubara, kubona, kubora, kubumba, kubura, kubyara, kubyina, gucura, kugenda, kugona, guha, guhita, kwiba, gukama, gukubita, gukura, kumenya, kunuka, kunywa, kwoga, kwota, gupfa, kurara, kurera, kurima, kurira, kuririmba, kuroba, kuroga, kurota, kuruka, kurwana, guseka, gushyika, guteka, gutema, gutuma, gutuka, gutwara, kwumva.
_Ntera: -inshi (ibintu byinshi), -ose/-ese (abantu bose/umuntu wese), buri, -bi (abantu babi), -kuru (abantu bakuru), -shya (abantu bashya), _Imibare kuva kuri rimwe kugeza kuri gatandatu, icumu hamwe n'ijana usanga izo ndimi ayo magambo ziyasangiye. _Icyungo na n'imbanziza jambo kwa, ku na mu.

Hepfo aha muraza kubona amagambo Ikiluba gisangiye n'Ikinyarwanda.

Amagambo yerekeye ibice by'umubiri:

difu > igifu
ditama > itama
dibele > ibere
ditako > itako
diso > ijisho
iminwe > iminwe
mutwe > umutwe
kuboko > ukuboko
kulu > ukuguru
lubavu > urubavu
kutwi > ugutwi
lubolo/imbolo > imboro
dibelo > ikibero
dino/meno > iryinyo/amenyo
muongo > umugongo
bubongo > ubwonko
lukongo > rugongo
ludimi > ururimi
mucima > umutima
mula/mila > ubura
mukono > umukono
umbidi > umubiri
kikoba > igikoba
kwapa > ukwaha
kanwa > akanwa
nywele > injwiri (umusatsi)
dingingo > ingingo
lwala > urwara

Amazina y'ibikoko

mfuko > ifuku
nge > ingwe
nkala > inkara
mbwa > imbwa
nzovu > inzovu
ngwena > ingona
nkima > inkima
ngulube > ingurube
ngonyi > inyoni
mvubu > imvubu
mbo > imbogo
nnyuki > inzuki
nyoka > inzoka
nswa > iswa
muswa > umuswa
nnyoka > inzoka
nyama/nyema>inyamaswa
tonyi>inyoni
nkanga > inkanga

Inshinga

kwaba > kugaba (kugabana)
kwaka > kwaka
kwalama > kugarama
kwalula > kugarura
kwaluka > kwarura (icyari)
kwamba > kugamba
kwandina>kwandika
kwanza > kubanza
kwenda > kugenda
kudima > kurima
kwasa > kurasa
kwasama >kwasama
kwaula > kwayura
kufika >gushyia
kumona > kubona
kubabula > kubabura
kubala > kubara
kuzimija > kuzimiza (gutakaza)
kubamba > kubamba
kubipa > kubiha
kubika > kubika
kubika > kubika (kubíika)
kubola > kubora
kubumba>kubumba
-di > -ri
kudya > kurya
kudila > kurira
kudika > kurika
kudima > kurima
kwenga > kwenga
kufika > gushyika
kufwa > gupfa
kufukama > gupfukama
kufukira > gupfuka
kufukula > gufukura
kubepa > kubeshya
kufula > gucura
kufulama > gucurama
kufuma > gufuma (kudoda)
kufumbata > gupfumbata
kufunga > gufunga
kwela > kwera
kuya > kujya
kwiba > kwiba
kwibila > kwibira
kwiya > kuza
kwikala > kwicara
kwila > kwira
kwimba > kuririmba
kwita > kwitaba (guhamagara)
kwitaba > kwitaba
kuyula > kwuzura
kulaya > kuraga
kulala > kurara
kulambalala > kurambarara
kuleka > kureka
kulela > kurera
kulema > kuremera
kuloba > kuroba
kulota > kurota
kulowa > kuroga
kulwa > kurwana
kulula > kurura
kunya > kunnya
kwoya > kwoga
kwoka > kwotsa
kwota > kwota
kwona > kugona
kupa > guha
kupamba > guhambira
kupita > guhita
kuponda > guhonda
kupwana > guhwana
kupula > guhura
kupunama > guhunama
kusaka > gushaka
kusanga > gusanganira
kusenga > gusenga
kushika > gushyika
kushiguka > gushiguka
kushinda > gutsinda
kusonga > gusongora
kumvwa > kumva
kununka > kunuka
kuvukuta > kuvuguta
kujira > kuizra
kujima > kuzima
kutumbila > gutumba
kwubaka > kwubaka
kwuluka > kuguruka
kwuma > kwuma
kutaluka > gutaruka
kutobola > gutobora
kucina > gutinya
kutula > gutura
kutuma > gutuma
kutuka > gutuka
kutwala > gutwara
kuteka > guteka
kukwela > guswera
kukwata > gukwata
kukula > gukura
kukupa > gukubita
kukama > gukama
kukya > gucya

Andi magambo

mwaka > umwaka
kyaka >icyaka (inyota)
muci > igiti
mwana > umwana
mwadi > umwari (umukobwa)
dikumi > icumi
malwa > amarwa
dijina > izina
bidi > biri
bantu bonso i babi > abantu bose ni babi
muji > umuzi
nganga > umuganga
mulume > umugabo
dibwe > ibuye
kintu > ikintu
bwato >ubwato
kwezi > ukwezi
dyuba > izuba
mudilo > umuriro
mfumu > umupfumu
dibala > ibara
nshimba > igisimba (genette)
ngoma > ingoma
kibambo > urumambo
kabaci > akabati
-bi > -ni
-bishi > -bisi
lwendo > urugendo
boya > ubwoya
mvula > imvura
bukwe/mukwe> umukwe
budidi > uburiri
panshi > hasi
-etu > -acu
-enu > -anyu
mufu > umupfu
lume > urume
kulu > ijuru
difiya > ishyiga
fimbo > inshyimbo (inkoni)
lufu > urupfu
mufu > umupfu
mulongo > umurongo
kifulu > ifuro
difumo > icumu
mwimbi > umuririmbyi
kizila > kizira
ina > nyina
-ine > nyine
-ine > -ene
-ipi > -gufi
kilalo > ikiraro (iteme)
kilaudi > ikirahuri
kilema > ikirema
buki > ubuki
mono > umugono
-onso > -oose/-eese
mudili > umuriro
mozi > umugozi
-pya > -shya
ditebe > intebe
dibwe > ibuye
-satu > -tatu
balume na bakaji
mungu > umwungu
nzala > inzara
kijiba > ikiziba
mujimu > umuzimu
muzungu > umuzungu
kudi > kuri
shya > so/se
kishyakulu > igisekuru
kwa > kwa
nshi > isi
nyuma > inyuma
lushinge > urushinge
lwimbo > indirimbo
ditungulu > igitunguru
diwi > ijwi
-tano > -tanu
dikala > ikara
kamana > imana
dikembe > icyembe
mukulu > mukuru

Rimwe na rimwe hari n'ubwo usanga mu ndimo zombi hari interuro zisa.

Interuro zisa

kwikinga ngabo > kwikinga ingabo
kudya meno > guhekenya amenyo
kutula pansi > gutura hasi
muci wa difumo > uruti rw'icumu

Amagambo yahinduye icyo avuga:

Indimi ziva inda imwe usanga zifite amagambo amwe ariko atavuga kimwe (adafite ibisobanuro bimwe). Ibyo mu gifaransa babyita faux amis , mu cyongereza false cognates. Iyo umuntu asuzumye neza asanga cyakora icyo ayo magambo avuga n'ubwo biba bidahuye biba bifitanye isano. Mu ndimi nyinshi umugeni ntabwo bivuga umugore warongowe, ahubwo bivuga umushyitsi cyangwa umunyamahanga. Umugeni rero n'umushyitsi bifitanye isano kuko bose baba ari bashya mu nzu. Nko mu Giswahire ijambo shamba (ishyamba) ntirivuga igihuru gifite ibiti n'ibigunda byinshi bivuga umurima. Umurima rero umuntu asuzumye neza na none abona koko ufitanye isano n'ishyamba kuko iyo udahinzwe nawo uzana ibyo bihuru n'ishyamba nyine.

mfumu (umupfumu) > umutware
kwaba (kugaba) > gusangira
mu nda > imbere
kibelo (ikibero cy'inzu) > urugi
munyo/minyo(innyo) > igituba
lelo (rero) > none
kibu (umubu) > tsetse
tulo (ituro) > ibitotsi
kwita >guhamagara
kulala > kuryama
mwenyi/benyi (umugeni)> umushyitsi/umunyamahanga
mazoya (ubwoya) > insya

Mu bwinshi, amagambo yerekeye ibikoko afata indangazina ya kabiri ari iranga abantu:

nge/bange babidi > ingwe ebyiri
mbwa/bambwa bonso > imbwa zose
ngulube/bangulube bengi > ingurube nyinshi


Hari indimi nyinshi zimeze nk'Ikiluba zituma amagambo amazina y'inyamaswa yitwara nk'aya bantu mu mbonezamvugo. N'Igiswahire ni ko kitwara nyine.

Amajwi adahuye

Hari ubwo akenshi amagambo aba ari mwe ariko ntibise neza shyashya kubera ko hari amajwi amwe adahuye. Ugasanga hari ijwi ribuze, ryiyongereyeho cyangwa cyangwa ryahindutse. Mu Kinyarwanda mw'ijambo inyamaswa rivuga igisimba -swa ntayiboneka mu ndimi usibye Ikinyankore n'igikiga. Izindi zose usanga ari nyama nta swa. Kubera ko nta swa iriho iryo jambo rero rivuga ibintu bibiri: inyamaswa nyine hamwe n'inyama.

Nk'uko ingero zibyerekana hano hepfo , h yo mu Kinyarwanda usanga ari p mu Kiluba, r ikaba d na g ikaba zero.

p>h

kwapa > ukwaha
pano > hano
kupa > guha
padi > ahari
po > ho
kupamba > guhambira
panshi > hasi
kupita > guhita
kuponda > guhonda
kupwana > guhwana
kupula > guhura
kupunama > guhunama

Aha rero Ikinyarwanda ni cyo cyandindutse naho Ikiluba cyagumanye iyi ngombajwi ya kear. Mu ndimi nyinshi, iyi p ikunda guhinduka, iba b nko mu Cyarabu, f nko mu Kiyapani cyangwa urulimi rwitwa Tagaloge rwo muri Filipine cyangwa w nko mu Luganda. No mu ndimi z'i Bulayi, hari aho iyp p yahindutse f nk'uko ingero z'igifaransa n'icyongereza zikurikira zibyerekana. Ibumoso hari amagambo y'igifaransa, iburyo hari ay'icyongereza.

père > father 'data/so/se'
peur > fear 'ubwoba'
peu > few 'bike'
péter > fart 'gusura'
pied > foot 'ikirenge'

g>Ø

mbo < imbogo
kaulube < akagurube
kae < akagwe
muongo < umugongo
kuenda < kugenda
kulu < ukuguru
kualama < kugarama
kuaba < kugaba
kulowa < kuroga
kuona < kugona
mozi < umugozi
lwendo < urugendo
kuuluka < kuguruka

Na none iri takazwa ry'iyi ngombajwi naryo riboneka mu ndimi nyinshi z'isi z'imiryango idahuye. Nongeye gutanga ingero z'igifaransa n'icyongereza. Nk'uko mubibona hari aho g yatakaye hari n'aho yahindutse w.

g > Ø

pagan > païen 'umupagani'
castigate > châtier 'guhana'
august > aôut 'Kamena'
negate > nier 'guhakana'
digit > doight 'urutoki'
plague > plaie 'icyorezo/igisebe'
frigid > froid 'gikonje'

g > w

guerre > war 'intambara'
noixgauge> walnut 'urubuto'
guêpe > wasp 'ivubi'
gage > wage 'umushahara'
gaufres > waffers 'utugati'
garde > warden 'umurinzi wa gereza'
Galles > Wales 'Gale'
Guillaume > William 'Wiliyamu'

Uku gutakara cyangwa guhinduka biterwa n'amategeko y'iyigamvugo. Mu ndimi nyinshi ingombajwi ziri hagati y'inyajwi zita ikiziranga, zikajya kwitwara nk'inyajwi nyine zikaba indangira cyangwa inkomeza. Nko mu Gikuyu kivuga muri Kenya k, d na b zihinduka inkubyi (fricative). Mu Kinyarwanda b nayo yahindutse ß keretse iyo ifatanye n'indi ngombajwi.

k>c

kwikala > kwicara
kukulama > gucurama

Mu Kinyarwanda naho hari ubwo iyi nyajwi ihinduka ikaba c nko mu magambo icumi rihinduka k nko muri makumyabiri cyangwa mw'ijambo umukecuru (umukazi-kuru)

Ihinduka z'ingombajwi z'inyeshinya

Ingombajwi z'inyeshina (zivugirwa ku mizi y'amenyo) ari zo t, d, s, z na r zirahinduka iyo zikurikiwe n'inyajwi i. Inyajwi r ihinduka d naho izindi zikaba inyesongashinya: t>c, z>j, s>sh.

c

mucima < umutima
muci < umuti
kucina < gutinya
kibidici < ikibiriti

j

dijina muji mujimu kijiba < ikiziba
kujira < kuzira

sh

inshi < isi
kibishi < kibisi

Ahangaha Ikiluba kirajya kumera nk'izindi ndimi cyane cyane ikiyapani gihindura inyajwi zacyo zikavugirwa mu rusenge rw'akanwa iyo zikurikiwe n'inyajwi zivugirwa kw'isonga ry'ururimi ari zo i na u.

r>d

abidi < abiri
nkwadi < inkware
kudi < kuri
-di < -ri
kudira < kurira
mudi < umuryi
kudima < kurima
ludimi < ururimi
budidi < uburiri
mudilo < umuriro
pabedi < hambere
umbidi < umubiri
mwadi < umwari
kilaudi < ikirahuri
kibidici < ikibiriti

Ni nayo mpamvu rero indangazina y'inteko ya gatanu ari yo di- nko mu magambo ditama (itama), dibere (ibere), ditako (itako). Ingereka ngirira -ir- nayo ihinduka -id-: kukamida > gukamira, kusakida > gushakira. Bamwe mu bahanga muri uyu muryango w'izi ndimi bemeza ko iyi d ari yo yahindutse r, ko rero Ikiluba kitahindutse ahubwo hahindutse izindi ndimi. Mu kinyarwanda hari ubwo usanga koko d na r biza mw'ijambo rimwe ntibihindure inyito, nko tubibona mu magambo dore/rore cyangwa reka da/reka ra!

r>n

Rimwe na rimwe hari ubwo ingombajwi ihinduka inyazuru iyo ikurikiye indi y'inyazuru. Iri tegeko bakunda kuryita Itegeko ry'Uluganda (Ganda Law) kuko ibi bibonekamo cyane kandi ingombajwi z'indangurure zose zigahinduka inyazuru.
Ibango -ir- rihinduka -in- iyo igicumbi gihezwa n'ingombajwi y'inyazuru. Dore zimwe muri izo ngero:

kumina < kumira
kudimina < kurimira
kumona < kubona

Nk'uko izi ngero z'Uluganda zibyerekana, murabona ko ingombajwi zose zihinduka iyo zikikijwe n'inyazuru mu mpande zombi.

omutwe gunnuma (omutwe gu-n-ruma)> umutwe urandya
okugulu kunnuma (okugulu ku-n-ruma) > ukuguru kurandya

kubumba > mmumba 'ndabumba'
babumba 'babumba'
kugenda > nnenda 'ngenda'
bagenda 'bagenda'
kulinda > nninda 'ndinda'
balinda 'barinda'
kulima > nnima 'ndima'
balima 'balima'
kulwana> nnwana 'ndwana'
balwana 'barwana'

Ikinyarwanda nacyo gifite amagambo amwe yubahiriza iryo tegeko nk'uko mubibona hasi cyakora si itegeko rusange kandi cyo cyubarihiriza iri tegeko ry'Uluganda kuko kugirango b ihinduke m igomba kuba ikikijwe n'inyazuru ibumoso n'iburyo.

kubandwa > imandwa (in-bandwa)
urumambo> kubamba (uru-bamb-o)
urubanza > imanza (in-banza)u

Ikindi kigaragara ni uko ingombajwi zibihekane zije vuba mu kinyarwanda kuko izindi ndimi zitazifite: Ndavuga nka ts, pf, by, nny, shy:

kubyina < kubina; kubyara < kuzaara; gupfa < kufa; kurya < kula; kunnya < kunya, etc.

Kugereranya imiterere n'amagambo ari mu muryango umwe bituma umuntu arushaho kumenya amava n'amavuko y'izo ndimi, kumenya umuco n'imibereho abazivuga basangiye hamwe n'amateka y'ibihugu izo ndimi zivugwamo. Izi ndimi ziragaragaza ko Abantu bari bazi guhinga, kuroba no gucura. Bose bari batunze ihene, inkoko n'imbwa. Kandi ko ingurube, imbogo, impysi, ingwe, inzovu byari bizwi na bose. Igisoro cyakinwaga na hose kandi uwabaga umutware akenshi yabaga azi no kuragura. Ni cyo gituma mu bihugu bimwe umupfumu bivuga umutware.

Amagambo Ikinyarwanda kuhariye mbese kihimbiye ni: inka, imfizi, intama, umusatsi, igituza, ibitugu, igituba, umugabo, umukobwa, umuhungu

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